Timeline of the History of Architecture

Timeline of the History of Architecture

Timeline of the History of Architecture

Summary :

The history of architecture encompasses the evolution of building design across different cultures and time periods. Prehistoric architecture involved creating structures from earth and stone, such as mounds and megaliths. Ancient Egyptian architecture focused on the construction of pyramids using materials like limestone and granite. Classical architecture, which emerged in Greece and Rome, emphasized symmetry and proportion, with columns and decorative brackets as key features. Early Christian architecture developed in Rome and Constantinople, with a focus on creating space for worship and the segregation of the clergy and congregation. Romanesque architecture, inspired by Roman design, featured massive walls, round arches, and large towers. Byzantine architecture was characterized by domes, rounded arches, and the extensive use of glass mosaics.

Description :

Timeline of the History of Architecture

History of architecture is the study of the evolution of architecture through the ages and across a wide range of geographies and cultural contexts. From the Mesopotamian civilization to the Egyptians and Greeks, architectural history is a transnational one. In the following article you will learn more about different architectural eras and styles throughout history.

History of Architecture

Historically speaking, architecture has a lengthy and complicated history that rivals the complexity of human history itself. The Neolithic period, roughly 10,000 years ago, could be considered the beginning of architecture, or it could just be the point in time when people stopped living in caves and began designing their homes. It is easy to think of architecture in terms of its visual attractiveness, yet this desire to construct an architectural artefact was fuelled by more than just the need for beauty. One of the most intriguing features of architecture is its ability to mirror the spirit of time in a way that may be even more significant than how we see it happen with art. Architecture has proven to be many things: comfortable, elegant, modern, brutal, indexical, vernacular. In order to justify the parallelism between architectural history and human history, there is no better physical evidence of society change than architecture. It is possible to learn about the history of architecture by simply looking at the structures that were built in different locations at different times. Human actions were reflected in architecture, and this was made clearer by the constant effort to preserve some of the constructed history, while deciding to let the rest fade and ruin.

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Timeline of Different Architectural Styles

Prehistoric Architecture

  • Prehistoric builders moved earth and stone into geometric forms, creating our earliest human-made formations. Humans constructed earthen mounds, stone circles, megaliths, and structures
  • Göbekli Tepe in present day Turkey is a good example of archaeological architecture. Before recorded history, humans constructed earthen mounds, stone circles, megaliths, and structures that often puzzle modern-day archaeologists.
  • Prehistoric Architecture Includes monumental structures such as Stonehenge, cliff dwellings in the Americas, and thatch and mud structures.
  • Many fine examples of well-preserved prehistoric architecture are found in southern England. Stonehenge in Amesbury, United Kingdom is a well-known example of the prehistoric stone circle.

Prehistoric Building Typology

Ancient Egyptian Architecture (3500 BCE to 900 AD )

  • This architectural style ranges from 3,050 B.C. to 900 B.C. It depicts the prominent period of Egyptian architecture. 
  • The Egyptians created the most impressive structures of the ancient world. The period saw the construction of some of the prominent pyramids with several noticeable architectural characteristics. 
  • Wood was not widely available in the arid Egyptian landscape. Houses in ancient Egypt were made with blocks of sun-baked mud. 
  • Flooding of the Nile River and the ravages of time destroyed most of these ancient homes. Much of what we know about ancient Egypt is based on great temples and tombs, which were made with granite and limestone and decorated with hieroglyphics, carvings, and brightly colored frescoes. 
  • The ancient Egyptians didn’t use mortar, so the stones were carefully cut to fit together.

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Egyptian Pyramids

Classical Architecture (850 AD TO 476 AD )

  • Classical architecture refers to the style and design of buildings in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Classical architecture shaped our approach to building in Western colonies around the world.
  • The period between the rise of the Greek Empire and the fall of the Roman Empire has eventually seen the construction of several buildings. The most important architectural feature which highlights this style is the column placed on the façade. 
  • The identifiable features of classical aesthetic include symmetry, proportion, rational order, the relationship of individual parts to the whole and calm logic.
  • 700 to 323 BCE — Greek: The Doric column was first developed in Greece and it was used for great temples, including the famous Parthenon in Athens. Simple Ionic columns were used for smaller temples and building interiors.
  • 323 to 146 BCE — Hellenistic: When Greece was at the height of its power in Europe and Asia, the empire built elaborate temples and secular buildings with Ionic and Corinthian columns. The Hellenistic period ended with conquests by the Roman Empire.
  • 44 BCE to 476 CE — Roman: The Romans borrowed heavily from the earlier Greek and Hellenistic styles, but their buildings were more highly ornamented. They used Corinthian and composite style columns along with decorative brackets. The invention of concrete allowed the Romans to build arches, vaults, and domes. Famous examples of Roman architecture include the Roman Colosseum and the Pantheon in Rome.
  • Much of this ancient architecture is in ruins or partially rebuilt. Virtual reality programs like Romereborn.org attempt to digitally recreate the environment of this important civilization.

Timeline of the History of Architecture 7
Classical Architecture Orders

Early Christian Architecture (373 AD TO 500 AD)

  • The Early Christian architecture started in two prominent locations centered at Rome and Constantinople. 
  • The Position of Rome as the center of a world-wide empire was an important factor. Christianity to become universal.
  • The quarry of the ruins of roman buildings influenced the architectural treatment of the style, both in regard to construction and decoration
  • Early Christian architecture at Rome was influenced by, and was the logical outcome of, existing Roman architecture.
  • Columns and other architectural features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into the design of new Basilican churches of the Christians.

Spread of the Early Christian Architecture

Architectural Characteristics:

  •  With Christianity widely accepted as a state religion in Rome it was necessary for architecture to respond to the demands of the religion for worship space. 
  • Mode of worship was the most important determinant of the form of the church
  • The term early Christian architecture refers to the architecture of the early Christian churches of the roman era 
  • With Christianity accepted as a state religion in Rome and expanding in influence, it became necessary for architecture to respond to the space demands of the new religion
  • The requirements include: 
  1. A path for processional entry and exit of the clergy
  2. An altar area, where the clergy celebrate mass
  3. A space for the segregation of the clergy from the congregation during procession and communion 
  4. Burial space.

Romanesque Architecture (500 AD TO 1200 AD)

  • Romanesque is inspired by What is Romanesque Roman architecture.
  •  Similarities between Roman and Romanesque include round arches, stone materials, and the basilica-style plan (used for secular purposes by the Romans). 
  • Influences that led to the Romanesque style are far more complex – Romanesque architecture also shows influences from gothic, Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic architecture. 
  • The Romanesque period cannot be precisely defined – but Romanesque architecture generally dates from 1000 to 1150 
  • Romanesque was at its height between about 1075 and 1125.

Architectural Characteristics:

  • Combining features of contemporary Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. 
  • Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. 
  • The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials.

Byzantine Architecture (A.D. 527 and 565)

  • By the time Constantine became the Caesar of the Roman empire, the Empire had split in half
  • The Western Roman Empire centered in Rome, speaking Latin 
  • The Eastern Roman Empire of Byzantium (Constantinople), today Istanbul 
  • Byzantium, “New Rome”, was later renamed Constantinople and is now called Istanbul. 
  • The empire endured for more than a millennium, dramatically influencing Medieval and Renaissance era architecture in Europe and, following the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, leading directly to the architecture of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Eastern Empire, or Byzantine Empire became strong and stable in the sixth century under Emperor Justinian: lasting 1000 years, with a great cultural history 
  • It fell to the Turks in 1453. 
  • The borders were breached and the Emperor was forced to abandon Rome, moving the center northward, first to Milan then to Ravenna. 
  • Barbarians spilled over the rest of the Roman Empire, Germany, Spain, Italy, Gaul, and Africa. 
  • By the end of the sixth c. there were dozens of barbarian kingdoms which replaced the central authority of the Roman Emperor.  Sea trade ceased, great cities were abandoned, and Rome shrunk. just about every institution of the Government ceased, except one. the Church.

Architectural Characteristics:

  • Characterized especially by massive domes with square bases and Architecture rounded arches and spires and extensive use of glass mosaics.
  • Early Byzantine architecture was built as a continuation of Roman architecture. 
  • Stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually emerged which imbued certain influences from the Near East and used the Greek cross plan in church architecture.
  • Greek cross plan in church architecture – A cross with four equal arms at right angles
  • Buildings increased in geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced GREEK CROSS LATIN CROSS carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, and windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to softly illuminate interiors.

History of Architecture
Angelo Hornak/Getty Images (cropped)

Gothic Architecture (1100 AD TO 1450 AD)

  • Gothic architecture began mainly in France, where architects were inspired by Romanesque architecture and the pointed arches of Spanish Moorish architecture. 
  • It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.
  • It’s easy to recognize Gothic buildings because of their arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, elaborate sculptures (like gargoyles) and stained glass windows. Gothic architecture was originally known as “French Style”. 
  • As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, and its principles and characteristic forms were applied to other types of buildings. 
  • In the 12th and 13th centuries, advances in engineering enabled architects to design and complete increasingly huge buildings

Renaissance Architecture (1400 AD TO 1600 AD)

  • Financed by commercial prosperity and competition between city-states, such as Florence, Rome and Venice, as well as rich families like the Medici banking dynasty in Florence and the Fuggers banking family in Germany, the Renaissance was neverthess a triumph of will over world events. 
  • Not long before, there had been a run of disastrous European harvests (1315-19); the Black Death plague (1346) which wiped out one third of the European population; the 100 Years War between England and France (1339-1439), and the Christian Church was polarized by schism. 
  • Hardly ideal conditions for the rebirth or rinacimento that followed. As it was, the 16th century Popes in Rome almost bankrupted the Church in the early 16th century due to their profligate financing of fine buildings and the visual arts.

Timeline of the History of Architecture 23
St. Peter’s Basilica

Baroque Architecture (1600 AD TO 1830 AD)

  • The Baroque style is reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation.
  • In France, the highly ornamented Baroque style combines with Classical restraint.
  • Russian aristocrats were impressed by Versailles in France, and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Petersburg.
  • Elements of the elaborate Baroque style are found throughout Europe.
  • Russian aristocrats were impressed by the Palace of Versailles, France and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Petersburg. Elements of the elaborate Baroque style are found throughout Europe.

Baroque Architecture (1600 AD TO 1830 AD)

  • The Baroque style is reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation.
  • In France, the highly ornamented Baroque style combines with Classical restraint.
  • Russian aristocrats were impressed by Versailles in France, and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Petersburg.
  • Elements of the elaborate Baroque style are found throughout Europe.
  • Russian aristocrats were impressed by the Palace of Versailles, France and incorporated Baroque ideas in the building of St. Petersburg. Elements of the elaborate Baroque style are found throughout Europe.

Rococo Architecture (1650 AD TO 1790 AD)

  • During the last phase of the Baroque period, builders constructed graceful white buildings with sweeping curves
  • Rococo art and architecture is characterized by elegant decorative designs with scrolls, vines, shell-shapes, and delicate geometric patterns.
  • Rococo perfectly reflected the decadent indolence and degeneracy of the French Royal Court and High Society. 
  • Unlike other major architectural movements, like Romanesque, Gothic or Baroque, Rococo was really concerned with interior design. 
  • This was because it emerged and remained centred in France, where rich patrons were unwilling to rebuild houses and chateaux, preferring instead to remodel their interiors. And the style was far too whimsical and light-hearted for the exteriors of religious and civic buildings.
  • Perhaps because of this, although it spread from France to Germany, where it proved more popular with Catholics than Protestants, it was less well received in other European countries like England, The Low Countries, Spain and even Italy. 
  • It was swept away by the French Revolution and by the sterner Neoclassicism which heralded a return to Classical values and styles, more in keeping with the Age of Enlightenment and Reason.

Timeline of the History of Architecture 29
St. PeCatherine Palace Near Saint Petersburg, Russiater’s Basilica

American Colonial (1600 AD TO 1780 AD)

  • Colonial architecture characteristics include: Symmetrical front and rectangular shape. 
  • Two stories. A lean-to addition with a saltbox roof (basically where the roof in the back of the house extends almost all the way down to the ground- the shape of saltboxes in the time)

Art Nouveau (1890 AD TO 1940 AD)

  • Known as the New Style in France, Art Nouveau was first expressed in fabrics and graphic design. 
  • The style spread to architecture and furniture in the 1890s as a revolt against industrialization turned people’s attention to the natural forms and personal craftsmanship of the Arts and Crafts Movement. 
  • Art Nouveau buildings often have asymmetrical shapes, arches, and decorative Japanese-like surfaces with curved, plant-like designs and mosaics. 
  • The period is often confused with Art Deco, which has an entirely different visual look and philosophical origin.

Neo-Gothic (1905 AD TO 1930 AD )

  • In the early 20th century, medieval Gothic ideas were applied to modern buildings, both private homes and the new type of architecture called skyscrapers.
  • Gothic Revival was a Victorian style inspired by Gothic cathedrals and other medieval architecture. Gothic Revival home design began in the United Kingdom in the 1700s when Sir Horace Walpole decided to remodel his home, Strawberry Hill. In the early 20th century, Gothic Revival ideas were applied to modern skyscrapers, which are often called Neo-Gothic. 
  • Neo-Gothic skyscrapers often have strong vertical lines and a sense of great height; arched and pointed windows with decorative tracery; gargoyles and other medieval carvings; and pinnacles.

Timeline of the History of Architecture 35
The Neo-Gothic 1924 Tribune Tower in Chicago. Glowimage/Getty Images (cropped)

Timeline of the History of Architecture 37

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1- melk360.com ,Timeline of the History of Architecture ,2023-04-18 15:56:34
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